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Systems Practices As Common Sense

On July 16, 1945 the first nuclear bomb was detonated at White Sands Proving Ground in New Mexico. The Trinity nuclear test forever changed the world. There were massive developments that arose from this huge event like Interstate Freeways and the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE). Additionally Systems Engineering emerged. It was matured and honed to such a level that many in the field started to view it as common sense. Unfortunately what might be considered common sense or just training from one perspective might be viewed as significant knowledge and education from another perspective. This knowledge was captured in the complex collection of for profit companies, non-profit companies, think tanks, and national labs. Now we are faced with the dilemma that many of these institutions have disappeared and many of the practitioners have died. This book is an attempt to capture some of this knowledge and pass it to the next generation.

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Instructor Information

The text has 47 chapters, an appendix, bibliography and index. Each chapter concludes with Exercises and Additional Reading. The content offers a description of how to execute various practices, examples, and then author comments. The author comments are identified, but occasionally the commentary does slip into the description of the practices. The model of the content structure is based on 3 years experience advising Undergraduate University students on their senior year systems engineering projects. Each chapter is structured so that an instructor can modify the level of detail offered in their course. Supporting material is readily available via the references that are in the public domain produced by NASA, FAA, DOD and others. The references form the foundation of the systems engineering that led to humans landing on the moon, satellites, air traffic control and many other systems we now enjoy. They are also the foundation of this text.

I offer this course at Drexel University:
Systems Engineering Analysis
Systems Engineering Analysis Description
Catalog
Curriculum

When taking this course, it is strongly recommended that students join INCOSE.org.

Videos: Impact of a Systems Education or MP4 Version (slides) . Impact of a Systems Education (talking head) or MP4 Version . YouTube

Detailed Table of Contents

The table of contents below shows the detailed topics for instructor planning. The table of contents in the book only shows the main chapters, unfortunately the text was page limited to 740 pages and so the detailed table of contents was cut. Figures, tables, and examples are shown below and they are part of the table of contents in the book.

Main Topics Some Details
1 Systems Practices

2 Introduction

3 Roots
3.1 Perspectives, Views, Dimensions, Domains
3.2 Systems Analysis Levels
3.3 Technology Versus Goal Driven Systems
3.4 Infrastructure Systems
3.5 Systems Practitioners Role
3.6 Exercises
3.7 Additional Reading

4 Fundamentals
4.1 Creativity And Innovation
4.2 Program Project Or Project Program
4.3 Information Chunking And Modularization
4.4 Momentum
4.5 Hysteresis
4.6 Event Versus Process And Control Theory
4.7 Peak Load And Burnout
4.8 Timing And Sizing
4.9 Capabilities Functions Features
4.10 Static Versus Dynamic Systems
4.11 Cause And Effect
4.12 Brainstorming And Meetings
4.13 Doodling Note Taking And Concept Maps
4.14 Storyboards
4.15 Previous Work And History
4.16 Black Box White Box Analysis
4.17 Exercises
4.18 Additional Reading

5 The Process, Method, Methodology
5.1 Idealized Process Description
5.2 Small Project
5.3 Large Scale Systems
5.4 Sustainable Development
5.5 Life Cycle Based
5.6 Summary
5.7 Systems Fundamentals
5.8 Where Is The Heart?
5.9 Value Systems
5.10 Cost Analysis
5.11 Measure Of Effectiveness
5.12 Systems Practices And Development Phases
5.13 Front End Systems Practices
5.14 Middle Systems Practices
5.15 Back End Systems Practices
5.16 Capability Maturity Models
5.17 Organizational Capabilities
5.18 Vetting And Pedigree
5.19 Enterprise Process
5.20 Exercises
5.21 Additional Reading

6 Stakeholders And System Participants
6.1 Possible Stakeholders
6.2 Addressing Divergent Stakeholder Needs
6.3 Technical Director
6.4 Exercises
6.5 Additional Reading

7 System Boundary
7.1 Context Diagram
7.2 Concept Diagram
7.3 Level Of Understanding
7.4 Human Elements
7.5 Exercises
7.6 Additional Reading

8 Functions Performance Subsystems
8.1 Top Level Functional And Performance Analysis
8.2 Functional Decomposition
8.3 Functional Flow Block Diagram
8.4 Functional Sequence Diagram
8.5 Functional Thread Diagram
8.6 Formal Analysis Dangers
8.7 Coupling And Cohesion
8.8 Performance
8.9 Subsystems
8.10 Exercises
8.11 Additional Reading

9 Operations And Threads
9.1 Concept Of Operations
9.2 Operational Concepts
9.3 Operational Scenarios
9.4 Operational Threads
9.5 Task Analysis Or Operational Sequence Diagrams
9.6 Use Cases
9.7 Transactions
9.8 Ladder Diagrams
9.9 Timing Diagrams
9.10 Exercises
9.11 Additional Reading

10 Human Factors
10.1 Human Factors Basics
10.2 Vision And Displays
10.3 Hearing And Audio
10.4 Video And Audio Compression
10.5 Voice And Phraseology
10.6 Touch And Tactile Feedback
10.7 Ergonomics
10.8 Sensory Cognitive Data Information Overload
10.9 Feedback
10.10 Response Time
10.11 Vision Versus Sound
10.12 Visual And Audio Noise
10.13 Circadian Sleep Rest Cycles
10.14 Stress Sources
10.15 Hmi Style Guide And Hmi Design
10.16 Ethics
10.17 Exercises
10.18 Additional Reading

11 Flowcharts
11.1 Flowchart Use
11.2 Key System Logical Operations
11.3 Exercises
11.4 Additional Reading

12 Data Flows And Structured Analysis
12.1 Syntax And Semantics
12.2 Top Down, Bottom Up, Middle Out
12.3 Structured Analysis
12.4 Leveling And Optimization
12.5 Dfd Analysis Process
12.6 Structured System Analysis Dfd Reach
12.7 Allocations
12.8 Threads And Analysis
12.9 Hierarchical Input Process Output
12.10 Exercises
12.11 Additional Reading

13 IDEF0
13.1 Syntax
13.2 Semantics
13.3 Diagrams
13.4 Definitions
13.5 Exercises
13.6 Additional Reading

14 State Machine
14.1 Exercises
14.2 Additional Reading

15 Interfaces And Interactions
15.1 Interface Types
15.2 Interface Media
15.3 Interface Mechanisms
15.4 Transaction
15.5 Exercises
15.6 Additional Reading

16 Reliability Maintainability Availability
16.1 Reliability Prediction
16.2 Maintainability Prediction
16.3 Availability Prediction
16.4 Reliability Growth
16.5 Fracas
16.6 Exercises
16.7 Additional Reading

17 Impact Of Failure
17.1 Exercises
17.2 Additional Reading

18 Failure Mode And Effects Analysis
18.1 Failure Modes
18.2 Failure Effect Severity
18.3 FMEA Process
18.4 FMEA Worksheet
18.5 FMEA Worksheet Summary
18.6 Exercises
18.7 Additional Reading

19 Fault Tree Analysis
19.1 Identification Of Undesired Events
19.2 Fault Trees
19.3 Cut Sets
19.4 Exercises
19.5 Additional Reading

20 Fault Tolerance
20.1 Faults Errors And Failures
20.2 Well Check Or Certification Diagnostics
20.3 Fault Avoidance
20.4 Fault Removal
20.5 Failure Propagation
20.6 Broad Fault Tolerant Concepts
20.7 Fault Detection Approaches
20.8 Redundancy And Replication
20.9 Single Points Of Failure
20.10 Fault Tolerant Structures
20.11 Graceful Degradation
20.12 Fault Tolerance Measurement
20.13 Exercises
20.14 Additional Reading

21 Safety
21.1 Safety Hazards
21.2 Formal Safety Analysis
21.3 Safety Mitigation Approaches
21.4 Safety Architecture
21.5 Failsafe
21.6 Safe Practices
21.7 Exercises
21.8 Additional Reading

22 Security
22.1 Threat Assessment
22.2 Security Perimeter
22.3 Inherent Security No Security Perimeters
22.4 Penetration Analysis
22.5 Compartmentalization Or Need To Know
22.6 Authentication
22.7 Access Control
22.8 Privileges
22.9 Non Repudiation
22.10 Basic Security Systems
22.11 Security And Simplicity
22.12 Security Overhead Impacts
22.13 Security Logging And Auditing
22.14 Fail Secure
22.15 Security Monitor
22.16 Additional Information Security Elements
22.17 Secure Architectures
22.18 Security Abuse
22.19 Sources Of Security Failure
22.20 Exercises
22.21 Additional Reading

23 Modeling Simulation Prototypes
23.1 Mental Models Scenarios Assumptions
23.2 Static Model
23.3 Dynamic Model
23.4 Simulation
23.5 Emulation
23.6 Prototypes
23.7 System Dynamics
23.8 Physical Models And Mockups
23.9 Virtual Models
23.10 Simulator
23.11 Simulation Test Lab Or Facility
23.12 Simulation Training Lab Or Facility
23.13 Simulation Research Lab Or Facility
23.14 Model Verification Validation Accreditation
23.15 Exercises
23.16 Additional Reading

24 Technology Assessment And Maturity
24.1 Formal Technology Assessment
24.2 Informal Technology Assessment
24.3 Technology Maturity And Adoption
24.4 Technology Assessment And Sustainability
24.5 Technology Prediction
24.6 Function And Performance Allocation
24.7 Misuse Of Technology
24.8 Technology Infusion - Push Or Pull
24.9 Organization Longevity And Research & Development
24.10 Exercises
24.11 Additional Reading

25 Analysis And Requirements
25.1 Key Requirements
25.2 Requirement Types
25.3 Eliciting Gathering Requirements
25.4 Characteristics Of Good Requirements
25.5 Requirement Style Guide
25.6 Review Elements
25.7 Exercises
25.8 Additional Reading

26 Specifications And Design Artifacts
26.1 Guiding Principles
26.2 Specifications And Requirement Leveling
26.3 Specification Types And Practices
26.4 Example Specification Trees
26.5 Traceability
26.6 Traceability Reviews
26.7 Requirements Management
26.8 Exercises
26.9 Additional Reading

27 Architecture Concepts And Synthesis
27.1 Background And Definitions
27.2 Architecture Philosophy
27.3 Architecture Types
27.4 Architecture Topology
27.5 Architecture Analogies
27.6 Function Types
27.7 Depiction
27.8 Morphing Architecture Or Transition
27.9 Synthesis
27.10 Architecture Verification And Validation
27.11 Exercises
27.12 Additional Reading

28 Architecture And Value Systems
28.1 Financial Metrics And Value
28.2 Fixed And Variable Costs
28.3 Supply And Demand
28.4 Lowest Cost
28.5 Highest Profit
28.6 Return On Investment
28.7 Total Cost Of Ownership
28.8 Internal Rate Of Return
28.9 Economic Value Added
28.10 Real Option Value
28.11 Return On Assets
28.12 Return On Infrastructure Employed
28.13 Life Cycle Costs
28.14 Measure Of Effectiveness
28.15 Exercises
28.16 Additional Reading

29 Architecture Selection And Tradeoffs
29.1 Architecture Alternatives
29.2 List Of Advantages And Disadvantages
29.3 Tradeoff Criteria
29.4 Tradeoff Matrix
29.5 Sensitivity Analysis
29.6 Architecture Selection Big Picture
29.7 Architecture Maturity Levels
29.8 Processing Functions And Allocation Alternatives
29.9 Exercises
29.10 Additional Reading

30 Decision Making
30.1 Advantages Disadvantages List
30.2 Tradeoff Matrix
30.3 Probability Based Decisions
30.4 Analytical Hierarchy Process
30.5 Exercises
30.6 Additional Reading

31 Other Practices
31.1 Inheritance
31.2 Polymorphism
31.3 Attributes And Properties
31.4 Model Based Development
31.5 SysML And UML
31.6 System Of Systems
31.7 Value Engineering
31.8 Agile Iterative Incremental Development
31.9 Exercises
31.10 Additional Reading

32 System Requirements Database
32.1 SRDB History
32.2 Traceability Using An SRDB
32.3 Establishing The Schema
32.4 Exercises
32.5 Additional Reading

33 Integration Test Verification & Validation
33.1 Integration Approaches
33.2 Test Approaches
33.3 Characteristics Of Good Tests
33.4 Test V-Diagram
33.5 Verification
33.6 Validation
33.7 Accreditation And Certification
33.8 Various Tests, Verifications And Validations
33.9 Exercises
33.10 Additional Reading

34 Configuration Management
34.1 Nomenclature
34.2 Configuration Item
34.3 Libraries
34.4 Internal Configuration Management
34.5 Formal Configuration Management
34.6 Configuration Freeze
34.7 Functional And Physical Configuration Audit
34.8 Change Tracking And Control
34.9 Requirement Change Requests
34.10 System Change Requests
34.11 Software Change Requests
34.12 Hardware Change Requests
34.13 Engineering Change Notice And Proposals
34.14 Exercises
34.15 Additional Reading

35 Maintainability
35.1 Maintainability Interactions
35.2 Self Healing
35.3 Maintainability And Architecture
35.4 Maintainability Design Considerations
35.5 Maintainability Models
35.6 Maintainability Allocation
35.7 Troubleshooting Or Diagnosis
35.8 Exercises
35.9 Additional Reading

36 Training And Education
36.1 Classroom Instruction
36.2 Computer Based Instruction
36.3 Simulator Training
36.4 On The Job Training
36.5 Training And Architecture Selection
36.6 Exercises
36.7 Additional Reading

37 Integrated Logistics And Support
37.1 Maintenance
37.2 Personnel
37.3 Supply Support
37.4 Support Equipment
37.5 Information Products
37.6 Training And Training Support
37.7 Computer Resources Support
37.8 Facilities
37.9 Delivery
37.10 Design Influence
37.11 Exercises
37.12 Additional Reading

38 Installation Decommissioning Disposal
38.1 Installation
38.2 Validation Operational Suitability Commissioning
38.3 Shutdown Decommissioning Disposal
38.4 Exercises
38.5 Additional Reading

39 Quality
39.1 Quality Perceptions And Attributes
39.2 Quality Assurance - Design In Quality
39.3 Quality Control
39.4 Organizational Alternatives
39.5 Quality Improvement
39.6 Root Cause Analysis
39.7 Parts Tracking
39.8 Exercises
39.9 Additional Reading

40 Planning And Tracking Progress
40.1 Goals Basic Concepts
40.2 Process And Methodology Overview
40.3 Schedule Gantt Chart
40.4 PERT Chart
40.5 Work Breakdown Structure
40.6 Exercises
40.7 Additional Reading

41 Earned Value Management System
41.1 EVM Plan And Budget
41.2 Planned Value (PV)
41.3 Actual Cost (AC)
41.4 Earned Value (EV)
41.5 Earned Value Rules
41.6 Cost Account Management
41.7 Variance Analysis
41.8 Estimate At Completion (EAC)
41.9 Variance At Complete (VAC)
41.10 EVMS Reports And Status
41.11 EVMS Parameters Summary
41.12 Exercises
41.13 Further Reading

42 Major Milestones Reviews And Audits
42.1 System Requirements Review (SRR)
42.2 System Design Review (SDR)
42.3 SRR SDR Review Details
42.4 Software Specification Review (SSR)
42.5 Hardware Requirements Review (HRR)
42.6 Preliminary Design Review (PDR)
42.7 Critical Design Review (CDR)
42.8 PDR CDR Review Details
42.9 Test Readiness Review
42.10 Functional Configuration Audit (FCA)
42.11 Physical Configuration Audit (PCA)
42.12 Formal Qualification Review (FQR)
42.13 FCA PCA Review Details
42.14 Exercises
42.15 Further Reading

43 Statement Of Work
43.1 Characteristics Of A Good SOW
43.2 SOW Style Guide
43.3 General SOW
43.4 Request For Proposal SOW
43.5 System Intensive SOW
43.6 Developmental SOW A
43.7 Developmental SOW B
43.8 Other SOW Samples
43.9 Internal SOW
43.10 After Contract Award
43.11 Exercises
43.12 Additional Reading

44 Procuring Goods Services Systems
44.1 Buyers
44.2 Request For Information
44.3 Request For Proposal
44.4 Cost Realism
44.5 Vendor Product Evaluation And Selection
44.6 Sole Source
44.7 Exercises
44.8 Additional Reading

45 Proposals And Business Plans
45.1 Bid No Bid Market Analysis
45.2 Proposal
45.3 Basis Of Estimate
45.4 New Business Or New Product Plan
45.5 Product Life Cycle
45.6 Exercises
45.7 Additional Reading

46 Systems Management
46.1 Organization Settings
46.2 Transition
46.3 Systems Engineering Management Plan
46.4 Design &Amp; Implementation
46.5 Technical Interchange Meetings
46.6 Working Groups
46.7 Action Items
46.8 To Do Lists
46.9 Goals Advanced Concepts
46.10 Problem Solving Innovation And Team Mix
46.11 Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs
46.12 Ethics
46.13 Exercises
46.14 Additional Reading

47 Sustainability And Progress
47.1 Progress
47.2 Growth
47.3 Space Program
47.4 Internal Versus External System Sustainability
47.5 Sustainability V-Diagram
47.6 Community Sustainability And Accountability
47.7 The Search For Sustainable Requirements
47.8 New Sustainability Performance Requirements
47.9 Technology Assessment, Innovation, Stability
47.10 Maintenance Logistics Safety Reliability Quality
47.11 Life Cycle Cost
47.12 Architecture Identification Tradeoff Selection
47.13 Value Systems
47.14 Advantages Disadvantages List
47.15 Sustainability Tradeoff Criteria
47.16 Sustainability Tradeoff Matrix
47.17 Sustainability Push Versus Pull
47.18 Moving Forward
47.19 Going Backward
47.20 Sustainability Practitioners
47.21 Sustainable Air Traffic Control Example
47.22 Sustainable Air Traffic Control Lesson
47.23 Beyond Sustainability Regenerative Systems
47.24 Final Comments
47.25 Exercises
47.26 Additional Reading

48 Appendix A Public Laws And Dual Use
48.1 Federal-Aid Highway Act Of 1956
48.2 National Aeronautics And Space Act Of 1958
48.3 Federal Aviation Act Of 1958
48.4 Technology Assessment Act Of 1972
48.5 Ota Review Faa 1982 Nas Plan

49 Bibliography

50 Index

10.2.1 Night Vision And Eye Rods And Cones
10.2.2 Display Flicker And Eye Persistence
10.2.3 Field Of View And Eye Rod Cone Distribution
10.2.4 Color Selection Eye Focal Points
10.2.5 Contrast
10.2.6 Color Use
10.2.7 Blink Or Flash Rates
10.2.8 Warning And Caution Displays
10.2.9 Display Distance Placement And Text Size
10.2.10 Display Technologies

10.3.1 High Fidelity Recording Playback
10.3.2 Voice Grade Application
10.3.3 Noise Response
10.3.4 Sidetone
10.3.5 Ambient Noise
10.3.6 Audio Signals

10.6.1 Vibration
10.6.2 Force And Push
10.6.3 Snap Action
10.6.4 Detents
10.6.5 Position Size Shape Texture Movement
10.6.6 Physically Disparate
10.6.7 Mission Critical Tactile Feedback

10.7.1 Anthropometry
10.7.2 Ergonomic Risk Factors
10.7.3 Ergonomic Design Starting Points

15.3.1 Message Transfer
15.3.2 Acknowledgement
15.3.3 Non Acknowledgement
15.3.4 Interrupt
15.3.5 Polling
15.3.6 Round Robin
15.3.7 Queue
15.3.8 Event Driven
15.3.9 Cyclic
15.3.10 Buffer

20.6.1 Inherent Fault Tolerance
20.6.2 Passive Fault Tolerance
20.6.3 Reconfiguration Fault Tolerance

20.7.1 Check Lists And Inspections
20.7.2 Sensors And Instrumentation
20.7.3 Inverse Or Reverse Processing
20.7.4 Parity
20.7.5 Cyclic Redundancy Check
20.7.6 Sequence Counter
20.7.7 Progress Monitor
20.7.8 Keep Alive Signals
20.7.9 Diagnostics
20.7.10 Data Checking
20.7.11 Statistical Transient Fault Tracking

20.10.1 Cold Standby
20.10.2 Hot Standby
20.10.3 Multiprocessing
20.10.4 Dual String
20.10.5 Voting
20.10.6 Path Isolation

21.2.1 Hazard Identification
21.2.2 Hazard Assessment
21.2.3 Hazard Assessment Probability
21.2.4 Hazard Risk Index

23.7.1 Linear Output Time Paths
23.7.2 Exponential Output Time Paths
23.7.3 Goal Seeking Output Time Paths
23.7.4 Oscillation Output Time Paths
23.7.5 S-Shaped Output Time Paths
23.7.6 Stocks And Flows

23.14.1 Model Verification
23.14.2 Model Validation
23.14.3 Model Certification And Accreditation

24.1.1 Technology Readiness Levels
24.1.1.1 Nasa Technology Readiness Levels
24.1.1.2 Dod Technology Readiness Levels
24.1.1.3 Nato Technology Readiness Levels
24.1.1.4 Esa Technology Readiness Levels
24.1.1.5 Faa Technology Readiness Levels
24.1.2 Advancement Degree Of Difficulty Assessment
24.1.3 The Big Picture

25.5.1 Requirement Imperatives
25.5.2 Requirement Sentence Structure Suggestions
25.5.3 Requirement Words And Phrases To Avoid
25.5.4 Requirement Document Structure

26.3.1 A Level System Segment Specification
26.3.2 B Level Development Specifications
26.3.2.1 Prime Item Development Specification
26.3.2.2 Critical Item Development Specification
26.3.2.3 Non-Complex Item Development Specification
26.3.2.4 Facility Or Ship Development Specification
26.3.2.5 Software Development Specification
26.3.3 C Level Product Specifications
26.3.3.1 Prime Item Product Specifications
26.3.3.1.1 Prime Item Product Function Specification
26.3.3.1.2 Prime Item Product Fabrication Specification
26.3.3.2 Critical Item Product Specification
26.3.3.2.1 Critical Item Product Function Specification
26.3.3.2.2 Critical Item Product Fabrication Specification
26.3.3.3 Non-Complex Item Product Fabrication Specification
26.3.3.4 Inventory Item Specification
26.3.3.5 Software Product Specification
26.3.4 D Level Process Specification
26.3.5 E Level Material Specification
26.3.6 Two Part Specification

26.5.1 Very Course Grain Traceability
26.5.2 Course Grain Traceability
26.5.3 Fine Grain Traceability
26.5.4 Very Fine Grain Traceability
26.6 Traceability Reviews
26.6.1 Specification Parent Child Reports
26.6.2 Test Parent Child Reports

27.3.1 Centralized Architecture
27.3.2 Fully Distributed Architecture
27.3.3 Partially Distributed Architecture
27.3.4 Hierarchical Architecture
27.3.5 Centralized Architecture Backups And Capacity
27.3.5.1 Cold Standby Processor
27.3.5.2 Hot Standby Processor
27.3.5.3 Very Tightly Coupled Multiprocessing
27.3.5.4 Tightly Coupled Multiprocessing
27.3.5.5 Loosely Coupled Multiprocessing
27.3.5.6 Very Loosely Coupled Multiprocessing
27.3.6 Grid Computing
27.3.7 Distributed Processing Potentials
27.3.8 Centralized Versus Distributed Architectures
27.3.9 Distributed Versus Multiprocessing
27.3.10 Homogenous Heterogeneous Architecture
27.3.11 Federated Architecture
27.3.12 Other Architecture Types

27.4.1 Point To Point Or Line Or Point To Multi Point
27.4.2 Star Or Centralized Topology
27.4.3 Bus Topology
27.4.4 Ring Topology
27.4.5 Mesh Topology - Fully Or Partially Connected
27.4.6 Tree Or Hierarchical Topology
27.4.7 Hybrid Topology And Topology Control

29.3.1 Traditional Tradeoff Criteria
29.3.2 Sustainability And Regeneration Tradeoff Criteria
29.3.3 Environmental Impact Tradeoff Criteria

31.5.1 UML Structure Diagrams
31.5.2 UML Behavior Diagrams
31.5.3 UML Interaction Diagrams
31.5.4 SysML Diagrams
31.5.5 Paper And Computer Based Practices

33.5.1 Verification Plans
33.5.2 Verification Procedures
33.5.3 Dry Run Test Execution
33.5.4 Formal Test Execution
33.5.5 Test Report

33.8.1 Highly Accelerated Life Test
33.8.2 Safety Tests
33.8.3 Capacity Stress Testing
33.8.4 Destructive Testing
33.8.5 Characterization Tests
33.8.6 Architecture Verification And Validation
33.8.7 Software Intensive System Verification
33.8.8 Interoperability Tests

38.3.1 Shutdown Criteria
38.3.2 Shutdown Preparation
38.3.3 Decommissioning
38.3.4 Disposal

41.5.1 Fixed Formula
41.5.2 Milestone Weights
41.5.3 Milestone Weight With Percent Complete
41.5.4 Units Complete
41.5.5 Percent Complete
41.5.6 Level Of Effort

41.7.1 Cost Variance (Cv)
41.7.2 Schedule Variance (Sv)
41.7.3 Cost Performance Index (Cpi)
41.7.4 Schedule Performance Index (Spi)

42.8.1 Hardware
42.8.2 Software
42.8.3 Support Equipment
42.8.4 Engineering Data
42.8.5 Detailed Evaluation Of Electrical Mechanical Designs
42.8.6 Detailed Evaluation Of Software Designs
42.8.7 Electromagnetic Compatibility
42.8.8 Design Reliability
42.8.9 Design Maintainability
42.8.10 Human Factors
42.8.11 System Safety
42.8.12 Natural Environment
42.8.13 Equipment And Parts Standardization
42.8.14 Parts Standardization And Interchangeability
42.8.15 Assignment Of Official Nomenclature
42.8.16 Value Engineering
42.8.17 Sustainability
42.8.18 Ethics
42.8.19 Transportability
42.8.20 Test
42.8.21 Maintenance And Data
42.8.22 Spare Parts And Externally Furnished Property
42.8.23 Packaging Special Design Protective Equipment
42.8.24 Technical Manuals
42.8.25 System Allocation Document
42.8.26 Design Producibility And Manufacturing

43.2.1 SOW Imperatives
43.2.2 SOW Sentence Structure Suggestions
43.2.3 SOW Words And Phrases To Avoid
43.2.4 Work Words
43.2.5 Product Word List

45.3.1 BOE Elements
45.3.2 BOE Risk Assignments
45.3.3 Cost Estimating
45.3.4 Pricing

Figures

Figure 1 Early Bird - First Communications Satellite
Figure 2 Intelsat IV Communication satellite
Figure 3 Ideal System Convergence
Figure 4 Ideal System Loss
Figure 5 Organizational Failure Scenarios - Effectiveness over Time
Figure 6 Cause and Effect
Figure 7 Causal Relationships
Figure 8 Causal Relationship State Change
Figure 9 Wall Review
Figure 10 Storyboard - Book
Figure 11 Storyboard - Proposal
Figure 12 Storyboard - This Book
Figure 13 Black Box White Box Analysis
Figure 14 Waterfall Model
Figure 15 Front End Systems Practices
Figure 16 Middle Systems Practices
Figure 17 Back end Systems Practices
Figure 18 Less Obvious Stakeholders
Figure 19 Precisely Defined Stakeholders
Figure 20 Groups and Benefiting Stakeholders
Figure 21 Competing Stakeholders
Figure 22 Generic Context Diagram
Figure 23 Context Diagram - Vacation House
Figure 24 Context Diagram - My House
Figure 25 Context Diagram - My House in the Community
Figure 26 Satellite System Concept Diagram
Figure 27 Interface Diagram - Stereo Receiver Amplifier
Figure 28 Context Diagram - Health Care
Figure 29 Context Diagram - City, Village, Nation State
Figure 30 Context Diagram - Electric Power
Figure 31 Context Diagram - Automobile
Figure 32 Functional Block Diagram
Figure 33 Functional Block Diagram - Stereo Receiver
Figure 34 Functional Block Diagram - Future City
Figure 35 Functional Decomposition Level 1
Figure 36 Functional Block Diagram and Specification
Figure 37 Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD)
Figure 38 Functional Sequence Block Diagram
Figure 39 Functional Thread Diagram
Figure 40 Functional Block Diagram - Health Care View 1
Figure 41 Functional Block Diagram - Health Care View 2
Figure 42 Functional Block Diagram - Health Care View 3
Figure 43 Electric Power Generation / Automobile View 1
Figure 44 Electric Power Generation / Automobile View 2
Figure 45 Electric Power Generation / Automobile View 3
Figure 46 Concept of Operations Document Tree
Figure 47 Operational Document Interactions
Figure 48 Operational Scenario
Figure 49 Operational Thread Diagram
Figure 50 OSD Symbols
Figure 51 OSD Task Unit - Check Email
Figure 52 Generic Use Case - Air Traffic Controller
Figure 53 Ladder Diagram - Checking Email
Figure 54 Thread Based Development
Figure 55 Timing Diagram - Simple Interface Protocol
Figure 56 Human Eye as a Subsystem and Eye Cone Cell Response Curves
Figure 57 Rod Cone Distribution and Field of View
Figure 58 Field of View Eye Rotation
Figure 59 Field of View Head Rotation
Figure 60 Field of View Eye and Head Rotation
Figure 61 Color and Focal Length
Figure 62 Prism and Light Bending
Figure 63 Line of Sight
Figure 64 Human Information Processing System
Figure 65 Work Shifts - Daily Time Allocation Alternatives
Figure 66 Flowchart Symbols - Software circa 1970
Figure 67 Flowchart - Additional System Symbols
Figure 68 Current USA Emergency Health Care Process
Figure 69 Ideal Emergency Health Care Process
Figure 70 Flowchart - Automobile Troubleshooting
Figure 71 Flowchart - Automobile Drive by Wire Controls
Figure 72 Flowchart - Traditional Automobile Controls
Figure 73 DFD Context Diagram
Figure 74 DFD First Level Decomposition
Figure 75 Context Diagram - Enroute Facility
Figure 76 Level 0 Enroute Facility
Figure 77 Context Diagram Updated
Figure 78 Decomposition and Allocations
Figure 79 DFD Thread View
Figure 80 Decomposition Thread View
Figure 81 HIPO / IPO
Figure 82 HIPO - ATC Tracker
Figure 83 IDEF0 Elements
Figure 84 IDEF0 Decomposition
Figure 85 IDEF0 Page Pair Presentation
Figure 86 A-0 Diagram - Context Diagram
Figure 87 State Diagram and Table
Figure 88 State Diagram - Personal Computer
Figure 89 Reliability Block Diagram
Figure 90 System Availability - Series Subsystems
Figure 91 System Availability - Redundant Subsystems
Figure 92 Reliability Growth Curve
Figure 93 Fault Tree Symbols
Figure 94 Fault Tree and Cut Set - 3 Failures
Figure 95 Fault Tree and Cut Set - 4 Failures
Figure 96 Security Perimeter
Figure 97 System Dynamics Symbols
Figure 98 Linear Time Paths
Figure 99 Exponential Time Paths
Figure 100 Goal Seeking Time Paths
Figure 101 Oscillation Time Paths
Figure 102 S-Shaped Growth
Figure 103 Overshoot and Collapse
Figure 104 Overshoot and Oscillate
Figure 105 Reverse S-Shaped Decline
Figure 106 Model Verification and Validation
Figure 107 System Life Cycle and Technology Development
Figure 108 Technology Assessment Process
Figure 109 TRL Assessment Summary
Figure 110 Diffusion of Innovations - Rogers (1962)
Figure 111 Studies Requirements Specifications Tests
Figure 112 Document Shape
Figure 113 Domain Specific Document Shape
Figure 114 Requirements and Specification Review
Figure 115 Generic Specification Tree
Figure 116 Specification Tree Small Project
Figure 117 Specification Tree with Segments
Figure 118 Document Tree
Figure 119 Very Fine Grain Traceability Approach
Figure 120 Construction of the Water Screw
Figure 121 Centralized Architecture
Figure 122 Fully Distributed Architecture
Figure 123 Partially Distributed Architecture
Figure 124 Hierarchical Architecture
Figure 125 Amdahl's Law
Figure 126 Architecture Types
Figure 127 Point to Point / Line / Multi Point Topology
Figure 128 Star / Centralized Topology
Figure 129 Bus Topology
Figure 130 Ring Topology
Figure 131 Mesh Topology - Fully Partially Connected
Figure 132 Tree or Hierarchical Topology
Figure 133 Centralized Architectures
Figure 134 Distributed Architectures
Figure 135 Distribution and Storage Architectures
Figure 136 The Water Screw
Figure 137 Architecture Depiction Storyboard
Figure 138 Architecture Selection Process
Figure 139 Architecture Decomposition - House
Figure 140 ATC Architecture - Fully Centralized
Figure 141 ATC Architecture - Smart Centralized
Figure 142 Hughes ATC Architecture A1
Figure 143 Hughes ATC Architecture A2
Figure 144 Architecture Verification and Validation
Figure 145 Low Risk Cost Scenario
Figure 146 High Risk Cost Scenario
Figure 147 Supply and Demand Graphs
Figure 148 Offerings and Demand
Figure 149 Needs of the Highway Systems 1955-1984
Figure 150 Hughes NASA Surveyor Lunar Lander
Figure 151 Hughes Syncom 2 First Geosynchronous Satellite
Figure 152 Hughes Galileo Spacecraft
Figure 153 JPL Viking Lander and Mars Landscape
Figure 154 TRW Pioneer 10 Probe and Plaque
Figure 155 Voyager Space Probe
Figure 156 Alternative Lists and Tradeoff Decisions
Figure 157 Win probability Tree
Figure 158 AHP Vertical Hierarchy or Tree Diagram
Figure 159 AHP Horizontal Hierarchy or Tree Diagram
Figure 160 AHP Compared to Alternative List and Tradeoff Matrix
Figure 161 AHP Example
Figure 162 SRDB Traceability to Design and Implementation Information
Figure 163 SRDB Process 1
Figure 164 SRDB Process 2
Figure 165 Test V-Diagram
Figure 166 Maintenance Activities Diagram
Figure 167 Maintainability Allocation
Figure 168 Troubleshooting Tree - Automobile
Figure 169 Schedule Gantt Chart
Figure 170 PERT Chart AOA / ADM
Figure 171 PERT Chart PDM
Figure 172 Generic Work Breakdown Structure
Figure 173 WBS - Writing a Book
Figure 174 WBS - Building a House
Figure 175 Major EVM Elements
Figure 176 Heritage of Different Product Lines
Figure 177 Strategic Plan PERT Chart
Figure 178 Transition Fishbone Diagram
Figure 179 Earth Rising Seen from Moon and Neil Armstrong on Moon
Figure 180 Technology and Sustainability - Sankey Diagram
Figure 181 Sustainable Community
Figure 182 Traditional System V-Diagram
Figure 183 Sustainable System V-Diagram
Figure 184 Sustainable Architecture Depiction - Sankey Diagram
Figure 185 Infrastructure Manufacturing Services
Figure 186 From Necessities to Luxuries
Figure 187 AERA I
Figure 188 AERA II
Figure 189 AERA III

Tables

Table 1 System Analysis Levels
Table 2 Financial and Non-Financial Value Systems
Table 3 Concept of Operations Outline
Table 4 Operational Concept Outlines
Table 5 Operational Support Thread
Table 6 Eye Cone Cells and Color Ranges
Table 7 Caffeine Levels
Table 8 Flowcharts
Table 9 Maintenance Philosophy Assumptions
Table 10 Series Subsystems Availability Impact
Table 11 Redundant Subsystems Availability Impact
Table 12 Availability and Downtime
Table 13 Impact of Failure
Table 14 Impact of Failure Counts
Table 15 Failure Effect Severity Levels
Table 16 FMEA Worksheet or Database Record
Table 17 Parity Error Detection
Table 18 Sequence Counter
Table 19 Progress Monitor
Table 20 Single Point of Failure Severity Levels
Table 21 Fault Tolerance Measurement
Table 22 Hazard Severity Levels
Table 23 Hazard Assessment Table
Table 24 Hazard Probability Levels
Table 25 Risk Assignment Matrix
Table 26 HRI Hazard Risk and Acceptance Levels
Table 27 Safety Mitigation Architectures
Table 28 Security Threat Assessment Levels
Table 29 Penetration Analysis Criteria
Table 30 Technology Readiness Levels - NASA
Table 31 Assigning TRL Strategy
Table 32 Technology Readiness Levels - DOD
Table 33 Technology Readiness Levels - NATO
Table 34 Technology Readiness Levels - ESA
Table 35 Technology Readiness Levels - FAA
Table 36 TRL Human Factors Considerations - FAA
Table 37 AD2 Level and General Maturing Activities
Table 38 Technology Adopters and Maturity Levels
Table 39 Project Types and TRL
Table 40 Research and Development Success Scenarios
Table 41 Organizational Technology Maturity Assessment
Table 42 Organizational Technology Readiness Levels Assessment
Table 43 Test Verification Cross Reference Matrix (VCRM)
Table 44 MIL-STD-490 Specifications
Table 45 Indentured List Specification Tree
Table 46 Requirement Paragraph Level Traceability Matrix
Table 47 Parent Child Report
Table 48 Child Parent Report
Table 49 Architecture Types
Table 50 Function Types
Table 51 List of Advantages Disadvantages
Table 52 Architecture Tradeoff Matrix
Table 53 Architecture MOE
Table 54 Architecture Tradeoff Sensitivity Analysis
Table 55 Advantages Disadvantages Charting Alternatives
Table 56 Architecture Tradeoff Actual Specification
Table 57 Architecture Tradeoff Normalized Specification
Table 58 Architecture Tradeoff Stakeholder Ratings
Table 59 Win Probability
Table 60 AHP Assignment Scale
Table 61 SysML Versus UML Diagrams
Table 62 SRDB Information Product List
Table 63 SRDB Attributes
Table 64 SRDB Links
Table 65 Priorities Used For Classifying Defects
Table 66 Test Plan Suggestions
Table 67 Test Plan Outline Suggestion
Table 68 Test Procedure Outline Suggestion
Table 69 Troubleshooting Table - Automobile Engine
Table 70 Priorities Used For Classifying Defects
Table 71 Responsibility Assignment Matrix
Table 72 Common Level 2 and 3 WBS Elements
Table 73 Unique Level 1 and 2 WBS Elements
Table 74 CPI Drivers
Table 75 SPI Drivers
Table 76 EAC Calculation Methods and VAC
Table 77 EVMS Plan Status Example
Table 78 EVMS Variance Report
Table 79 EVMS Estimate at Complete Report Example
Table 80 SOW Work Words
Table 81 SOW Product Word List
Table 82 BOE Cost Risk Assignments
Table 83 Translating Initial BOE Data to BOE Costs
Table 84 Team Mix Characteristics
Table 85 Internal Sustainability and Maturity Levels
Table 86 List of Advantages Disadvantages
Table 87 Architecture Tradeoff Matrix
Table 88 Architecture MOE
Table 89 Our Progress to Date

Examples

Example 1 Block Box - Radio
Example 2 Solution and Process are Inseparable
Example 3 Process and Practitioners are Inseparable
Example 4 Stakeholder Representations
Example 5 Context Diagram - Vacation House
Example 6 Context Diagram - Primary House
Example 7 Context Diagram - Other Houses
Example 8 Interface Diagram - Stereo Receiver
Example 9 Concept Diagram - Health Care
Example 10 Context Diagram - Sustainable City
Example 11 Context Diagram - Sustainable Power
Example 12 Context Diagram - Personal Transportation
Example 13 Functional Block Diagram - Stereo Receiver
Example 14 Functional Block Diagram - City
Example 15 Performance and Quality
Example 16 Abstraction Level Needed for Current View
Example 17 Concept of Operations and Operational Concept
Example 18 Operational Thread and Budgets
Example 19 Thread Based Development
Example 20 Office Computer Display Flicker Abuse
Example 21 Flowchart - Emergency Health Care
Example 22 Flowchart - Troubleshooting
Example 23 Flowchart - Unintended Car Acceleration
Example 24 DFD Decomposition - Air Traffic Control
Example 25 HIPO - RADAR Tracker
Example 26 State Diagram
Example 27 Internet Associate Program
Example 28 Banking Transaction
Example 29 Impact of Failure Concept Application
Example 30 Electronic Hardware Interface Failure Modes
Example 31 Single Point of Failure
Example 32 Irresponsible Security Offloading
Example 33 Inherently Secure No Security Perimeters
Example 34 Appropriate Inappropriate Security Monitoring
Example 35 Sum of RADAR Errors
Example 36 Tracking Algorithm Modeling
Example 37 Automobile Crash Tests
Example 38 Traceability to the Line of Code
Example 39 Informal Technology Assessment ATC Simulation
Example 40 Technology Prediction - ATC Workstation
Example 41 Misuse of Technology
Example 42 Traceability to the Line of Code Revisited
Example 43 Technology Infusion - FAA and AAS
Example 44 Heterogeneous Architecture - Wind Farm
Example 45 Federated Architecture
Example 46 Schools Architecture Topology
Example 47 Architecture Morphing - Business
Example 48 Architecture Morphing - Automation
Example 49 Infrastructure System Transition Challenges
Example 50 Synthesis - Air Traffic Control Center
Example 51 Value Systems - Modified Supply and Demand
Example 52 Value Systems - Early Suburban Housing
Example 53 Value Systems - US Interstate Highway System
Example 54 Value Systems - Space Exploration
Example 55 Architecture Selection - Hospital Laptops
Example 56 AHP Matrix Calculations
Example 57 Polymorphism - Air Space Management
Example 58 System of Systems Air Traffic Control
Example 59 Test Procedure Document Organization
Example 60 Automobile Quality
Example 61 Audio Sound System Quality
Example 62 Root Cause Analysis - Emissions Failure
Example 63 Work Breakdown Structures
Example 64 Translating Initial BOE Data to BOE Costs
Example 65 Unsustainable Packaging
Example 66 Unsustainable Transport
Example 67 Think Local Production and Distribution